The relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among the students
Beyrambibi Bayat, Negar Akbarisomar, Neda Ahmadzadeh Tori, Hamid Salehiniya
Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Date of Submission  19Jun2018 
Date of Acceptance  08Sep2018 
Date of Web Publication  15Feb2019 
Correspondence Address: Dr. Hamid Salehiniya Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Iran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_174_18
INTRODUCTION: Selfconfidence means recognizing your abilities, selfinterest, and being aware of your feelings. Risktaking is one of the personality traits that may be affected by confidence. It can be defined as behavior that increases the probability of negative consequences. Considering the importance of students' selfconfidence and its relation with risktaking, the aim of this study is to study the relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This crosssectional study was done on 363 students of TUMS by stratified sampling. The tool for collecting data is based on a selfconfidence questionnaire and a risktaking questionnaire developed by Moradi et al. Data analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 21.86 years and 54.5% of participants were girls and the rest were boys. No significant correlation was observed between risktaking and selfconfidence in students according to the Pearson's coefficient test (r = 0.05, P = 0.29). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that there is no relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among students, and students who have higher selfconfidence are not exposed to high risks. Therefore, we need more studies in different age groups to validate this exact relationship. Keywords: Medical science, risktaking, selfconfidence, students, university
How to cite this article: Bayat B, Akbarisomar N, Tori NA, Salehiniya H. The relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among the students. J Edu Health Promot 2019;8:27 
How to cite this URL: Bayat B, Akbarisomar N, Tori NA, Salehiniya H. The relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among the students. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Mar 26];8:27. Available from: http://www.jehp.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/27/252324 
Introduction   
Selfconfidence means recognition of your abilities, selfinterest, and awareness of your feelings. Selfconfidence can also be described as feeling goodness as a result of positive emotions. Expressing a good feeling can be along with statements such as agreeing to yourself and the consent of those who are around you, encouragement, and courage.^{[1]} Selfconfidence is in fact the difference between selfperceived (which means an objective image of yourself) and the ideal itself (which means what a valuable person knows), so that the high difference between these two leads to lower selfesteem and a small difference between these two indicates a high selfesteem.^{[2]} Selfconfidence is one of the most important factors in mental health. Since it forms one of the essential characteristics of a person's personality, it will also affect other personality dimensions of individuals.^{[3]} In addition, selfconfidence is also defined as an attitude that makes one rely on his/her abilities and have a positive view of himself/herself.^{[4]} The selfesteem of each individual influences his/her quality of life a lot.^{[5]} Researches have shown that those who have lower selfesteem are more likely to be affected by the community with higher selfesteem.^{[6]} Studies showed that the level of selfconfidence among students is low.^{[7],[8]} Low level of selfconfidence in students is associated with increased risk. A risk is defined as behaviors that increase the likelihood of adverse physical, psychological, and social consequences.^{[9],[10],[11]} Risktaking means accepting a risk and placing yourself at a risk of injury or damage as is likely to be harmful to the individual.^{[9]} There is no one in the world who has not been endangered and at least not enjoyed it a bit. Daytoday life is exposed with daily dangers. If we risk too much in these times, we will face some problems, and if we do not care about these hazards, we will be destroyed silenced. The human's chance to be at risk is more among other creatures. He/she even has the power to enjoy his/her own risk.^{[12]} The risk is often considered as a positive feature for the young people, which leads to exploration and evolution in them.^{[13],[14],[15]} On the other hand, young age is a sensitive stage for learning highrisk behaviors, which often leads to problems and young people face it.^{[16]} In fact, the highest levels of risky behaviors, such as alcohol and medication consumption, often occur during adolescence and youth, especially during the period of being a college student.^{[17]} A study by Chuang et al. suggested that those who have high selfesteem are more likely to be at risk and that they are less likely to choose safe and lowrisk options.^{[18]} Selfconfidence has always been a necessary need for a person who has become more important in the last decade of this century.^{[19]} And, on the other hand, Beeble describes risktaking as “a situation that each person should decide involving choice between alternatives of different desirability; the result is unspecified; as a result, there is a possibility of failure”^{[20]} Given the importance of these two variables in people's decisions in life, there has been no studies conducted in Iran that considered both genders. This study was performed with the aim of studying the relation between selfconfidence and risktaking among the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).
Materials and Methods   
This crosssectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students of TUMS during the academic year of 2016–2017. The study samples included 363 students who were selected from seven schools (medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, health, paramedical, nursing and midwifery, and rehabilitation) in stratified sampling method. In the first stage, the faculties were considered as classes and the required sample in each school was calculated due to the proportions of each college, and the number of samples were calculated within each school and selected by simple random sampling method. In this study, two questionnaires were used to collect the data: a selfconfidence questionnaire and a risktaking questionnaire with demographic questions. The selfconfidence questionnaire comprised 30 questions and the risktaking questionnaire that also comprised 30 questions in which the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined using the validity and reliability approved by the Moradi et al.'s study.^{[21]}
The tool for collecting data is based on a selfconfidence questionnaire and a risktaking questionnaire developed by Moradi et al.^{[21]} in a study entitled “The relationship between selfconfidence and risktaking among female dormitory students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2014.” The used questionnaires included demographic variables (age, gender, college degrees, academic course satisfaction, and residence place) and a selfconfidence questionnaire containing 30 questions. In the study of Moradi et al.^{[21]}, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 78% for selfconfidence questionnaire, and the evaluation of questions has been implemented based on the Likert scale from Grade 1 for certainly not to the score 5 for of course yes, and the range of scores for each section is between 30 and 150. In this questionnaire, selfconfidence scores <70 mean low selfconfidence, scores of 70–109.9 mean average selfconfidence, and scores >110 mean high selfconfidence. The risktaking evaluating questionnaire also contains 30 questions. The Cronbach's alpha of this questionnaire was obtained from a study by Moradi et al.^{[21]} as 83%, and in this questionnaire, scoring has been implemented based on the Likert scale from Grade 1 as certainly no to the score 5 for of course yes. Furthermore, risktaking scores <80 mean low risk, scores of 80–114.9 mean average risk, and scores >115 mean high risk.^{[21]} After referring to colleges and explaining about the research, people entered the study with agreement and consent about the plan.
The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0, Chicago: SPSS Inc., USA) and correlation coefficient test at a statistically significant level of 0.05.
This study was approved in 2015 at the Students' Scientific Research Center of TUMS and has a code of ethics IR. TUMS. REC.1394.2220. It has also been a crosssectional study and individuals participated with a tendency to the study, and their information was confidentially reserved for the researcher. Therefore, this study did not have any problems about ethical considerations.
Results   
In the study, 363 students were included. The mean age of the students was 21.86 years and the standard deviation was 2.62; the lowest age was 18 years and the highest was 40 years; and girls constituted 54.5% (198) of the students and the rest were boys. In terms of college degrees, 52.1% (189) of students were general PhD and 45.5% (16) were bachelor students. In this regard, 81.3% (295) of students were satisfied with their field of study and 18.7% (68) were not satisfied with their field of study. A high percentage of people lived in the dormitory (50.7%;184 students), 43% (156 students) of students live with their family, and 6.3% (23) live alone.
The mean score of selfconfidence in the students was 88.84, the standard deviation was 88.12, the minimum score for selfconfidence was 30, and the maximum score was 128. In this regard, 5.5% of the students had low selfconfidence, 90.9% had moderate selfconfidence, and 3.6% had high selfconfidence. In the case of risktaking, the mean score of individuals was 117.48, and the standard deviation was 31.58.
According to the correlation test, a significant positive correlation was observed between age and selfconfidence (r = 0.21, P = 0.001), and selfconfidence increases with aging. According to the same test, no significant correlation was noted between risktaking and age (r = 0.04, P = 0.43), and also no significant correlation was observed between risktaking and selfconfidence in students according to the Pearson's coefficient test (r = 0.05, P = 0.29). [Table 1] shows the relationship between selfconfidence and risktaking.  Table 1: The correlation between selfconfidence and risktaking and age in students
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Discussion   
In this study, the relationship between selfconfidence and risktaking of students of TUMS was studied. Considering that one of the basic psychological needs in people is the need for selfesteem, which, if it is formed and satisfied correctly, will have positive and functional consequences such as selfesteem, worthiness, feeling of ability, sense of power, or competence and life adequacy; disregarding proper attention to this need leads to significant negative consequences such as feeling of worthlessness and inadequacy and weakness in human life.^{[22]} Personality characteristic that may also be affected by self confidence is the individual risktaking and is defined as the behavior that increases the likelihood of adverse consequences and physical, psychological, and social harms. In fact, accepting a risk is placing yourself at the risk of damage or harm, as harm is possible.^{[9],[10],[11]} A study by Chuang et al. showed that people with high selfconfidence are more confident about making decisions and are more likely to be risktaking, making them less likely to choose safe and moderate choices in a set of choices.^{[18]} In our study, 20 (5.5%) students had low selfesteem, 330 (90.9%) had moderate selfconfidence, and 13 (3.6%) had high selfesteem; comparing this to Moradi et al.'s study (1.1% of people with poor selfesteem, 59.4% with average selfesteem, and 39.5% with high selfesteem),^{[21]} our study showed that it had more normal distribution and the majority of our students had moderate self confidence Therefore, the number of people with high self confidence was lower in our study. In this study, 42 (11.6%) of people had low risktaking, 135 (37.2%) had moderate risktaking, and 186 (51.2%) had high risktaking. In the study by Moradi et al., the risktaking of 10% of female students was low, 68.9% was moderate, and 21.1% was high;^{[21]} thus, considering these results, the risktaking has been higher in our study.
The findings indicate that the selfconfidence of all students is high at their moderate level of risktaking. As a result, in our study, selfconfidence and risktaking were not correlated to each other and were independent. These results are not consistent with Moradi et al.'s study^{[21]} because their study results suggest a reverse correlation between self confidence and risktaking; in other words, in this study, people with higher self confidence had less risktaking. The level of self confidence and risktaking of students did not differ in our study that this was correlated with Farhadi et al.'s^{[8]} and NazarZade et al.'s^{[23]} studies. However, it did not match the findings of the Seal et al.'s study,^{[24]} because in this study, it was found that boys with higher self confidence have higher risktaking. Shrier et al. did not find any correlation between self confidence and highrisk behaviors, which was consistent with our study.^{[25]} In the study of Ziae et al., students had a moderate level of risktaking and there was a negative and reverse correlation between self confidence and risktaking,^{[26]} which did not match with our study.
Among the limitations of this study, we can point out to the limitation of educational degrees that include undergraduate and general PhD, low studies conducted in the country, and the unwillingness of some students to participate in this study. Therefore, it is suggested that similar studies should be implemented in other universities, other educational degrees, and other age groups.
Conclusion   
Based on the results of the study, there were no significant correlations between self confidence and risktaking among male and female students, meaning that with increasing selfconfidence of individuals, their risktaking was not reduced or increased.
In this study, the selfconfidence of most of the participants was moderate that sounds good. We can maintain and promote this self confidence planning for students. in this study, the risk was higher in most people. Also, some were moderate and few people were at low risk.
Therefore, it is suggested that we can determine the risk factors and do some actions for its improvement in order to control students' risktaking and reducing it.
Acknowledgment
This article is the result of a research project approved by the Students' Scientific Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences with this code: 30674. We are grateful to the Students' Scientific Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for helping us with this project, as well as all students who provided our information and participated in this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
This article is the result of a research project approved by the Students' Scientific Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences with this code: 30674.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1]
