The effect of education and implementation of “National Hospital Disaster Preparedness Plan” on an Iranian hospital preparedness: An interventional study
Mehdi Beyramijam1, Seyedeh Moloud Rasouli-Ghahfarokhi2, Abazar Fathollahzadeh3, Aziz Rahimzadeh3, Mohammad Ali Shahabirabori4, Mohsen Aminizadeh5
1 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleiman, Iran
3 Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
4 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Afzalipour Faculty of Medicine, Kerman Medical University, Kerman, Iran
5 Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran; Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
|Date of Submission||04-May-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||27-Jul-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Nov-2019|
Dr. Mohsen Aminizadeh
Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran; Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
INTRODUCTION: Hospitals as the first place for injuries have to keep up and increase activities in emergency and disasters. Therefore, any hospital necessarily requires disasters plan to improve its preparedness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of education and implementation of “National Hospital Disaster Preparedness Plan (NHDPP)” on Vali Asr Hospital preparedness in Iran.
METHODOLOGY: In a pre- and post-intervention study, NHDPP educated in five sessions, and it was used as a guide in the promotion of Vali Asr Hospital preparedness in Iran. The Iranian version of “Hospital Disaster Preparedness (HDP) assessment tool” was used to measure the hospital preparedness score. Finally, the quantitative data analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
RESULTS: Before intervention, the HDP score was measured in total and in the nine dimensions of preparedness. But after the intervention, it increased, 33% in command and control dimension, 33% in communication, 21% in safety and security, 26% in triage, 36% in surge capacity, 24% in the continuity of vital services, 27% in human resources, 13% in support and supplies management, and 7% in post disaster recovery dimension. Furthermore, the total HDP score increased about 24.5% after the intervention.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the “Iranian HDP plan” leads to improve the Vali Asr HDP score. Therefore, by planning and implementation of effective educational programs, it is possible to improve the hospitals' preparedness in Iran.
Keywords: Disaster, education, hospital, preparedness plan
|How to cite this article:|
Beyramijam M, Rasouli-Ghahfarokhi SM, Fathollahzadeh A, Rahimzadeh A, Shahabirabori MA, Aminizadeh M. The effect of education and implementation of “National Hospital Disaster Preparedness Plan” on an Iranian hospital preparedness: An interventional study. J Edu Health Promot 2019;8:215
|How to cite this URL:|
Beyramijam M, Rasouli-Ghahfarokhi SM, Fathollahzadeh A, Rahimzadeh A, Shahabirabori MA, Aminizadeh M. The effect of education and implementation of “National Hospital Disaster Preparedness Plan” on an Iranian hospital preparedness: An interventional study. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Apr 4];8:215. Available from: http://www.jehp.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/215/271913
| Introduction|| |
Iran, as a developing country, has always been prone to disasters. Recently, (November 12, 2017) 625 people were killed and >15,000 were injured by an earthquake on the Iraq–Iran border. With spreading emergency and disasters, it is necessary to manage disasters for communities' survival. Health is the first demand of so many people after disaster, and the preparedness of health system, especially hospitals' preparedness (as one of the key elements of any “Health Systems”) is critical., In the meantime, the “Vali Asr Hospital disaster preparedness (HDP)” as an only hospital in Razan county (Razan located in the northern of Hamadan Province in Iran) is so important. Razan, due to proximity to the Avaj fault zone, is one of the critical points of earthquake risk zoning in Iran. This fault has caused devastating earthquakes in June 22, 2002. In addition, due to mountainous weather and located in the passageway of the main road of “Hamadan-Qazvin” and also due to closeness to Avaj mountain passway (an area prone to traffic road accidents), Razan has been prone to various emergencies and disasters. In Iran, the attempts to improve hospitals' preparedness, started in winter of 2009, through developing National HDP Plan (NHDPP) by Health Research Center in Disasters at the University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. This program as a national guideline, was supported by the Secretariat of Disaster Health Working Group in the Ministry of Health and was announced to all hospitals in Iran. Nevertheless, implementing Disaster Preparedness Plan in Iran Hospitals is a main challenge  and after nearly 9 years of implementation of NHDPP in Iran, it was necessarily needed to investigate its effectiveness. In Iran and the other countries in the world, there are many studies that conducted to assessment of the preparedness of hospitals and hospital employers in disasters.,,,,,,,, Nevertheless, there are limited interventional studies to explore the effectiveness of the HDP on hospitals' preparedness. Thus, this research is conducted to investigate the effect of education and implementation of “NHDPP” on disaster preparedness of Vali Asr Hospital in Iran.
| Methodology|| |
This is a pre- and post-intervention study that was conducted in Vali Asr Hospital in 2017. Research tools of the study included: “National (Iranian) hazard analysis Tool” and Iranian version of the “HDP Assessment Tool.” Since the hazard analysis is one of the first steps in disaster management planning, the first ten hazards of Vali Asr Hospital identified by the “National hazard Analysis Tool.” This tool Commissioned by the Secretariat of the Health Working Group and designed and developed by Khankeh et al. (2013), in the “Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center in University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences” to extract the Universities of Medical Sciences hazard list. This tool evaluates the hazards based on the “frequency,” “magnitude,” “vulnerability,” and “probability” factors.
“HDP Assessment Tool” is the Iranian version of “Hospital emergency response checklist” that was introduced by the European Office of World Health Organization. Validity and reliability of Iranian version of the “HDP Assessment Tool” was verified by Karimian (2015). It measures hospitals' preparedness by an all-hazard approach. The instrument consisted of 91 three-choice questions (under investigation, in progress, and completed) based on nine key components of hospital preparedness including: command and control (6 questions), triage (10 questions), human resources (15 questions), communications (9 questions), increased capacity (13 questions), support/provisions management (10 questions), safety and security (11 questions), continuity of vital services (8 questions), and recovery after disasters (9 questions). Each question has three items included: “under investigation,” “in progress,” and “completed.” For the scoring, the number “1” allocated for “under investigation,” the number “2” for “in progress,” and “3” for the “completed” item. Because the number of questions in the tool domains was not equal, the 0–100 method was used to scoring and homogenize the domains. At the end, the score obtained from each dimension and from all domains was categorized into three levels: weak (<34%), moderate (34%–67%), and strong (above 67%). Once the hospital preparedness questionnaire was completed for the hospital, the NHDPP firstly educated and then was implemented for a period of 1 year. According to NHDPP, HDP was acquired in four steps, including: (1) Preparing disaster preparedness policies, (2) Planning response to emergencies and disasters, (3) Training of employees, and (4) Monitoring and evaluation of results.
The intervention was started with educating of the NHDPP for all hospital staff (particularly clinical and managerial staff) in five sessions (each session is 4 h) and reestablishment of Disaster Risk Management Committee. The content of educational program included: hospital risk and hazard assessment, HDP program, hospital early warning system, establishment and activation of hospital incident command system (HICS), activation of hospital response plan, hospital surge capacity planning, and triage in disaster.
The secretary and members of hospital disaster risk management committee, were assigned according to hospital organization and indicators proposed in the NHDPP. In the next step, the “Vali Asr HDP program” was developed based on the NHDPP and according to the main hazards of the hospital (included the internal and external hazards of Vali Asr Hospital that was extracted by The “National hazard Analysis Tool” [Graph 1]) through monthly meetings of the Hospital Disasters Management Committee (twice a month) and continuing follow-up of committee secretary and the study researcher.
In relation to the “command and control” dimension, the original and alternate members of the HICS and also the members of hospital disasters committee were reassigned and trained. Regarding the dimension of “surge capacity,” it was considered a place to increase the capacity of the emergency department until five beds (the total number of active beds in emergency department was 12) and was developed an increased capacity plan for it.
The identifying potential area such as lobbies and “staff training room” to increase the patient admission (until 35 bed), signing an agreement with women gym (which is available near the Vali Asr Hospital) to convert it to a therapeutic unit in disasters, signing an agreement with emergency medical services (EMS) to help in transport of disaster casualties, and developing a plan to discharge elective patients were the other main measures to enhancing hospital preparedness in this item.
In relation to “communication,” it was assigned a person as a “public relations officer” and also was determined a specified place (in the hospital campus) to meet the media, community, and the health authorities in the disasters. Gathering employer contact information and activating short message service system for them, collecting main contact numbers such as the emergency operations center, EMS, Fire Department, Red Crescent, Municipality, Governorate, as well as developing a patients tracking plan, were the preparedness actions in this item.
The measures that conducted about the “human resource” dimension, were included: compilation of personnel recall program and list them based on the priority of call, recording of staff call numbers and their address, identification, registering and training of health volunteers to help in disasters, concluding a “memorandum of understanding” with one of the chain stores in the Razan city to ensure the supply of food and personnel requirements, and providing a place to rest of the personnel.
In relation to “triage,” in addition to the triage education for all staff, was assigned a place for “start triage” in out of the emergency department (in the hospital campus) and was specified a place for entrance and leaving of the ambulances and patients to the hospital, also assigned experienced staff to doing triage. Developing a comprehensive plan for controlling of the hospital gates in disasters and signing an agreement with police to ensure hospital security were the activities that were conducted to improve hospital's preparedness in “safety and security” dimension. Finally, after 12 months (a year) of the intervention, the “HDP Assessment Tool” was recompleted and the quantitative data were analyzed and compared (in before and after intervention) using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
| Results|| |
The Vali Asr Hospital is a general hospital with 110 active beds. Its wards are including: emergency department, operating room and intensive care unit, critical care unit, “Surgery–Internal” ward for men and for women, dialysis, and mother and infant ward. It also includes other wards such as radiology, laboratory and pathology, and clinic and administrative unit. See other demographic data in [Table 1]. In assessing the hazards of the hospital, the first ten hazards of Vali Asr Hospital were determined that the results of which are shown in Graph 1. The results of the current study showed that the applying principles of the NHDPP have increased preparedness score in all HDP dimensions. The increase in the “command and control” was 33%, in “triage” 26%, in “human resources” 27%, in “communications” 33%, in “surge capacity” 36%, in “logistics/support management” 13%, in “safety and security” 21%, in “continuation of vital services” 24%, and in the “recovery after disaster” was 7%, as detailed shown in [Table 2]. Through investigating the effect of intervention on the overall hospital preparedness score, the study showed that the intervention led to enhancing hospital preparedness up to 24.5% [Table 2].
|Table 2: Hospital disaster preparedness scores in before and after intervention|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This study examined the effect of intervention on Vali Asr Hospital preparedness in total score and in nine dimensions include: command and control, triage, human resources, communications, surge capacity, support/logistics management, safety and security, continuity of vital services, and recovery after the disasters. Based on the results [Table 2], the Vali Asr Hospital preparedness before intervention was close to low level (in total and in the dimension levels). The results of this study are consistent with many national studies conducted such as Ghafari et al. and Ardalan et al. (2014). In all of them, the hospital preparedness was in low level. Regarding the effect of intervention on the hospital preparedness, the current study showed that educating and implementation of NHDPP has promoted the preparedness of Vali Asr Hospital in all dimensions. As seen in [Table 2], the most increase in the preparedness score is related to the “surge capacity,” “command and control,” and “communication.” According to the study of Nekoie-Moghadam et al., the “command and control” and “communication” were the main elements of HDP. Furthermore, the results of this study are consistent with the results of the study of Delshad et al. and Karimian et al. (2015).
The results showed that the intervention had an increasing effect on the dimensions of “triage,” “human resource,” “safety and security,” and “service continuity.” In this regard, the study of Pouraghaei et al. showed that the education of “triage in disaster,” has positive effects on the knowledge and performance of EMS technicians. As well as in the study of Rahmati et al. education of triage improves the qualitative indices of emergency department. In the study that conducted by Delshad et al., activities such as allocating a place for triage in outside of hospital, as well as developing a plan for cancelation of elective surgery operations improved hospital preparedness score., Despite the positive results of the study about “safety and security,” lack of introducing the rules necessary for volunteers' attendance during disasters, absence of a valid method to identify hospital personnel, and patients and visitors at the time of disasters were the factors in reducing the preparedness score in this item.
In general, although NHDPP has increased the hospital preparedness in all dimensions, this increase was minimal in the “recovery” dimension. Time constraint caused the least change in the “recovery” preparedness and perhaps increasing the duration of the study and carrying out the necessary interventions in this area can increase the preparedness in this dimension. Lack of disaster recovery plan, lack of necessary criteria and processes of controlling disaster and the recovery system, lack of team organization of hospital staff for checking hospital inventory after the disaster, lack of considering people to provide reports to hospital administrators after the disasters, absence of defined responsibilities for employees, volunteers, and foreign workers in response to natural disasters and recovery phases, were the weaknesses of the hospital in this area, and it indicates the need for more action in this regard.
Through investigating the effect of intervention on overall hospital preparedness, the total preparedness score improved from 104.5 in pre intervention to 171.4 in post intervention. The results of this study are consistent with findings of Rajabi et al. and Karimian et al. In these studies, the hospital preparedness level increased following intervention. In the study conducted by Rajabi et al., hospital overall preparedness score increased from poor-to-moderate level. In the study conducted by Karimiyan et al., the overall preparedness of the hospital increased from 178 to 210 following teaching principles of hospital preparedness national program.
| Conclusion|| |
This study demonstrates that education and implementation of the “Iranian HDP plan” lead to improve the Vali Asr HDP score. Therefore, it is recommended to Iranian hospital officials, by planning and implementation of effective educational programs, to facilitate the running of NHDPP and improves the hospitals' disaster preparedness.
One of the limitations of this study was the time limit. It would be better to improve hospitals' preparedness, especially in disasters' recovery phases, if it was done in a longer time.
The authors express their deep gratitude to the Vali Asr Hospital disaster risk management committee.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Seyedin H, Ryan J, Keshtgar M. Disaster management planning for health organizations in a developing country. J Urban Plann Dev 2010;137:77-81.
Khankeh H, Kolivand PH, Beyrami Jam M, Rajabi E. Kermanshah health care services: a lesson learned from iran's recent earthquake. J Health Emerg Disaster Q 2018;3:221-33.
Nekoie-Moghadam M, Kurland L, Moosazadeh M, Ingrassia PL, Della Corte F, Djalali A. Tools and checklists used for the evaluation of hospital disaster preparedness: A systematic review. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2016;10:781-8.
Smith S, Gorski J, Chandra Vennelakanti H. Disaster preparedness and response: A challenge for hospitals in earthquake-prone countries. Int J of Emergency Management. 2010;7:209-20.
Walker RT, Bergman E, Jackson J, Ghorashi M, Talebian M. The 2002 June 22 Changureh (Avaj) earthquake in Qazvin province, Northwest Iran: Epicentral relocation, source parameters, surface deformation and geomorphology. Geophys J Int 2005;160:707-20.
Ghasemi H, Kamalian N, Hamzeloo H. Stochastic finite-fault simulation for the 2002 Changureh-Avaj earthquake, NW Iran. J Earth Space Phys 2006;32:25-35.
HamidReza Khankeh. Hospital Disaster Preparedness: National Program. Iran: Publications of University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2013.
Masoumi GhR, Dehghani A. Challenges of Implementing Disaster Preparedness Plan in Iran Hospitals. Health in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly. 2016; 2 (1):3-4.
Vali L, Masoud A, JabariBeyrami H, Yaghobian B. Readiness of hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of medical sciences to face disasters. J Health Dev 2014;3:62-70.
Hojat M. Disaster preparedness in hospitals of Jahrom University of medical sciences (2010). J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2012;16:72-7.
Janati A, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Hasanpoor E, Sokhanvar M, HaghGoshyie E, Salehi A. Emergency response of Iranian hospitals against disasters: A practical framework for improvement. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2018;12:166-71.
Asefzadeh S, Rajaee R, Ghamari F, Kalhor R, Gholami S. Preparedness of Iranian hospitals against disasters. Biotechnol Health Sci 2016;3:1-6.
Hosseini S, Izadfar A, Rajabzadeh R, Sadeghi M, Sadeghi A. Assessing the levels of preparedness against disaster of the hospitals in North Khorasan; Iran, in 2016. J Biol Todays World 2017;6:191-5.
Farajzadeh M, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Beiramijam M, Dalvand S, Ghawsi S, Amini H. Preparedness of Nurses for Crises and Disasters in Imam Khomeini and Social Security Hospitals of Saqqez. HDQ. 2017; 3 (1):57-63
Naser WN, Ingrassia PL, Aladhrae S, Abdulraheem WA. A study of hospital disaster preparedness in South Yemen. Prehosp Disaster Med 2018;33:133-8.
Vick DJ, Wilson AB, Fisher M, Roseamelia C. Assessment of community hospital disaster preparedness in New York state. J Emerg Manag 2018;16:213-27.
Walczyszyn M, Patel S, Oron M, Mina B. Perceptions of hospital medical personnel on disaster preparedness. F1000 Res 2016;5:9.
Hamid reza Khankeh. Risk Assessment Tools and Health Capabilities Indicators of Specialized in Disaster. University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences Publications of University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2013.
Hospital Emergency Response Checklist: An All-Hazards Tool for Hospital Administrators and Emergency Managers. World Health Organization ROfE; 2011.
Karimian, Evaluation of education of hospital disaster preparedness principles according to National Program on Response Preparedness of the Shahid Motahari Hospital. Tehran: University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences; 2015.
Ghafari SK, Ghanbari V, Ranjbar M. Readiness Assessment of Affiliated Hospitals of Rehabilitation Science University Against Unexpected Events in 2011. Q Sci J Rescue Relief 2012;4:21-34.
Ardalan A, Kandi Keleh M, Saberinia A, Khorasani-Zavareh D, Khankeh H, Miadfar J, et al.
2015 estimation of hospitals safety from disasters in I.R. Iran: The results from the assessment of 421 hospitals. PLoS One 2016;11:e0161542.
Delshad V, Borhani F, Khankeh H, Abbaszadeh A, Sabzalizadeh S, Moradian MJ, et al
. The effect of activating early warning system on Motahari hospital preparedness. J Health Emerg Disaster Q 2015;1:3-8.
Pouraghaei M, Sadegh Tabrizi J, Moharamzadeh P, Rajaei Ghafori R, Rahmani F, Najafi Mirfakhraei B. The effect of start triage education on knowledge and practice of emergency medical technicians in disasters. J Caring Sci 2017;6:119-25.
Rahmati H, Azmoon M, Kalantari Meibodi M, Zare N. Effects of triage education on knowledge, practice and qualitative index of emergency room staff: A quasi-interventional study. Bull Emerg Trauma 2013;1:69-75.
Aminizadeh M, Rasouli Ghahfarokhi SM, Pourvakhshoori N, Beyramijam M, Majidi N, Shahabi Rabori MA. Comparing the effects of two different educational methods on clinical skills of emergency intermediate technician: A quasi-experimental research. J Educ Health Promot 2019;8:54.
Rajabi S, Khankeh H, Delshad V, Rahgozar M, Arsalani N, Mohammadi F, et al
. Effects of comprehensive risk management program on the preparedness of rofeide rehabilitation hospital in disasters and incidents. Health Emerg Disaster Q 2017;2:179-86.
[Table 1], [Table 2]