Innovative methods in teaching college health education course: A systematic review
Roya Sadeghi1, Hashem Heshmati2
1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Science, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran
|Date of Submission||27-Oct-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||02-Mar-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||14-May-2019|
Mr. Hashem Heshmati
Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND: According to the importance of health education and low capabilities and competencies of health workers related to health education, designing and providing innovative methods for teaching health education is necessary, so the study was designed and done with the aim of reviewing articles related to innovative methods in teaching college health education course.
METHODS: A review of published articles was done to included innovative methods on college health education course. The study was done by systematically searching appropriate database including Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct by using keywords.
RESULTS: Five article present innovative methods for teaching college health education course and similar course, these studies were including usage of YouTube, simulation, smart mobile device in social-network-based health education practice and patient feedback by using patient perception questionnaire.
CONCLUSIONS: There are a few innovative studies related to college health education course, and surprisingly there is only one study that used health education models/theories for designing college health education course. Hence, we recommend the development of a comprehensive, systematic, evidence-based college health education course including mentioned methods for providing health education and similar courses.
Keywords: College health education course, health education, innovative, teaching
|How to cite this article:|
Sadeghi R, Heshmati H. Innovative methods in teaching college health education course: A systematic review. J Edu Health Promot 2019;8:103
|How to cite this URL:|
Sadeghi R, Heshmati H. Innovative methods in teaching college health education course: A systematic review. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 11];8:103. Available from: http://www.jehp.net/text.asp?2019/8/1/103/258138
| Introduction|| |
Due to epidemiological transition and high prevalence of chronic disease as leading cause of death as well as emerging and reemerging infectious disease, it seems that health education programs may be most effective ways to prevent these causes of death.,, Perhaps never before there was not so many demands on those in health education and health behavior to facilitate behavior changes.
According to the WHO health promotion glossary that describes health education as “not limited to the dissemination of health-related information but also fostering the motivation, skills and confidence (self-efficacy) necessary to take action to improve health.” Health education focuses on building individuals' capacities through educational, motivational, skill-building, and consciousness-raising techniques.
According to the importance of the subject, during the past two decades, researches have grown rapidly related to health education as well as health education and promotion are recognized increasingly as ways to meet public health objectives and improve the success of public health and medical interventions around the world.
On the other hand, many health educators have limited specialized training and they have many problems and challenges such as minimal educational preparation, inadequate or nonexistent job descriptions, lack of proper management training, unclear job expectancies, and a vague role definition. A study showed when comparing aggregate training needs, public health workers with greater day-to-day contact such as nurses and health educators, indicated a greater need for training than their peers, as well as various studies,,,, were done with the aim of assessment capabilities of graduate and health workers as well as health workers' perspective on the appropriateness of educational content with actual needs in the field, have showed capabilities in high percentage of participants in relation to health education competencies are not in a desirable level and based on the viewpoint of participants, educational content of health education course is not appropriate.
Another review study showed that some issues in related to education for health professionals in the emerging market economies were the mismatch between the health needs of the population and education curricula; outdated curricula and teaching methods; growing numbers of medical schools; the quality of education, and inadequate career guidance for students to help them make decisions about choosing a health profession as a career and later, about choosing a field of specialization.
It seems, there is a lack of adequate capabilities and competencies related to health education among health workers which partly because of developing traditional and historical techniques, for training health workers instead of applying scientific and new methods. Therefore, using innovative methods and evidence-based methods for training them is necessary.
Moreover, educating high-quality professionals for teaching and training in health care should be regarded as a necessary factor for improving teaching and effectiveness and academic vitality. Also increasing interest and motivations of faculty expertise is crucial. Therefore, faculty development has a fundamental role to play in promoting academic excellence and innovation.,,
According to the importance of the issue, emphasizing on identifying evidence-based interventions and disseminating them is increasing widely. Evidence-based health education interventions are most likely to be based on theory and have been shown through empirical study to be effective. Using theory-based interventions, evaluated through appropriate designs, contributes to the understanding of why interventions do or do not “work” under particular conditions.
Evidence-based health education practice defines as “process of systematically finding, appraising and using qualitative and quantitative research findings as the basis for decisions in the practice of health education.”
Various studies were reviewed methods of health education., Several studies have used health education and promotion models/theories for designing university courses, curriculum development, and medical education,,,,,,,,,,,,, as well as one study used health education and promotion models for teaching health education course but on the basis of our findings, any study does not pay attention to review of innovative methods that were tailored for teaching college health education course.
According to the importance of the issue and important role of innovative, creative, and evidence-based educational methods, this study was carried out with the aim of reviewing and assessment of innovative methods in teaching college health education course.
| Methods|| |
Computerized literature research was done on Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. Studies were selected according to the following keywords: “teaching,” “training,” “innovation,” and “health education.” Because of limited number of studies, researchers did not consider the time limitation in search strategy.
Selecting the study
At the first round, studies were selected based on their title and abstract. At the second round, studies were selected based on their full text, and then initial list of included studies was developed. Finally 10 key article entered the present review study. These steps are illustrated in [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: The flowchart for selecting and enrolling the articles in the study|
Click here to view
For selecting studies following criteria was considered.
- Studies that were published in English
- Studies with focus on the educational method
- Studies with innovative methods.
- Studies that their full text was not available
- Studies that their methodology was not clearly explained
- Studies that did not meet the requirement of the current study.
It should be noted that one of the problems of a review of this sort is delineating its scope vis-a-vis topics related to health education that are taught in medical education, therefore, the reviewers did not adopt absolute systematical.
| Results|| |
Five articles presented innovative methods for teaching college health education course and similar course, these studies were including usage of YouTube, simulation, smart mobile device in social-network-based health education practice and patient feedback by using patient perception questionnaire [Table 1].
|Table 1: Innovative studies in teaching college health education and similar courses|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The current review investigated innovative methods for teaching college health education course. Although the assessment of routine methods such as problem-based learning and meaningful learning was not our aim, we used a review article related to the above subject to enrich the study. Furthermore, the assessment of other college courses was not our aim, but we used similar courses for enriching the study. Few studies related to teaching health education course represented gap of literature in this regard, so designing and implementation of new studies is necessary.
Despite high potential of health education for designing innovative methods for college health education course, there is a few studies related to innovative methods in health education, and surprisingly there was only one study that indicated using health education models and/or theories for designing college health education course. In our opinion, the second revolution in health education and promotion will occur by using appropriate health education models and/or theories in college health education course and medical education. Health education models/theories use for behavioral change, so we can use mentioned models/theories for enabling students and change their educational behaviors.
Summary of lessons learned from this review
Despite the existence of many models/theory in health education and promotion and high potential of them in creating appropriate knowledge, attitude, practice, and other health education and promotion competencies, we could find only one record that designed and done with the mentioned models/theories.
Some studies,,, were done on medical educators. It seems one of the most important methods for promoting quality of college health education course is training and equipping health education faculty members with necessary teaching skills.
Several countries have adopted and implemented cross-cultural exchange programs with the aim of developing teaching and training skills, leadership and professional bonding among medical educators worldwide., Hence, we recommended educating health education faculty members related to teaching and training methods based on health education models/theories at the first step and then asked them to educate others faculty.
An important point that we should consider about it, is that in the great majority of cases, teaching college health education and patient education was done by physician, nurses, and other faculty members other than faculty member of health education, so although health education was commonly taught, the subject may have been somewhat cursory, because of the fact that few of medical educators appeared to have received formal training in patient and health education concepts and methods. It seems importance of health education course for university stakeholders is not clear or probably there are not enough health education specialists in the universities, so we recommend teaching health education and patient education by health education specialists or training faculty members that teach health and patient education courses.
Some studies,,,,, were done on college students and health professionals. It seems that after educating faculty members, faculty members should educate the students with standard and high-quality methods.
All methods that used for the education in the articles that were reviewed in the current study
Outcome-based education, community-oriented medical education, problem-based learning, workshop, discussion, problem-based learning, meaningful learning, scientific health education, using YouTube, simulation, combining exploratory learning, supported participation, patient-based learning, reflective practice, integrated learning, an integrative approach and team-based learning, using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice/tablet PC and Google+, Workshop (faculty demonstration, participant rehearsal, and group and individual feedback), didactic instruction, case presentations, role-playing (sometimes using simulated patients), supervision of students and residents while they see patients (often supplemented by reviews of videotapes of visits), role modeling of skills by faculty and staff, chart reviews, and empirical research projects to test effects of patient education approaches.,,,,,,,,, On the basis of evidence, these methods are attractive and effective, so using of them can improve the quality of health education course.
Innovative methods for teaching college health education course
Five articles presented innovative methods for teaching college health education course and similar course, these studies were including usage of YouTube,, simulation, smart mobile device in social-network-based health education practice and patient feedback by using patient perception questionnaire that was reported by Bartlett.
Using innovative video technology resources such as YouTube can provide relevant information for supplement college course content, create a sense of “classroom community” and enrich the learning environment. Preparing future health educators requires faculty to adapt new teaching strategies that motivate and engage students in new technologies. Also on the basis of a study, faculty who use YouTube for teaching in their course, consider YouTube as an effective teaching methods to enhance their health education course materials. According to disadvantages of traditional classroom training as well as emerging new technologies as new educational channels, using these technologies in education is most effective and attractive for students.
Simulation is becoming common in education, but many educators do not have appropriate training and skills for using simulation effectively, but in our opinion, the use of simulations in health education is not common. Moreover, there are many restrictions in traditional college health education course, because health education is the sum of skills that we cannot teach it by using didactic methods such as lecture and its skills should teach by using practical methods in the field whereas there is increasing restrictions for the presence of professors and students in clinical sites and fields. Hence, we recommend using simulation for teaching college health education course.
Smart mobile device in social network-based health education practice
In a study, a tablet PC and Google + were introduced to a health education practice course for elucidating capacity and conditions and analyzing the sequence and frequency of learning behaviors during the social network-based learning process. On the basis of its results, the social network can promote and improve interaction among peers and between professors and students. In addition, all participants in the study including students and educators expressed a positive attitude and satisfaction related to these innovative teaching methods. Nowadays, most of the people have smart mobile devices and spent many times for using smart mobile device, According to the importance of using smart mobile devices in nowadays as well as the importance of social networks, we recommend using this innovative method for teaching college health education course.
Patient feedback by using patient perception questionnaire
In this method, a patient perception questionnaire was distributed among patients immediately after their visits by the residents after 588 questionnaires were distributed over a 10-month period and the findings conveyed to the educators; they said that the patient feedback was interesting and helpful., In spite of the simplicity of this method, it is very effective and is useful method for promoting skills and competencies of students related to health education, so we recommend this method as a complementary method in college health education course.
Strengths of the study
The strengths of this study were the first systematic review that reviewed innovative methods in teaching health education course. It also opens a new way for researchers to institutionalize the science of health education at the university courses and consequently institutionalize science of health education in the health system.
Weakness of the study
In our opinion, faculty members use many innovative methods for teaching health education course, but as they did not publish these novels, we could not reach to them so, there is a possibility of missing unpublished innovative methods.
| Conclusions|| |
Most of the studies were done with routine methods such as problem-based learning and there are a few innovative studies related to teaching college health education course including the usage of YouTube, simulation, smart mobile device in social-network-based health education practice and patient feedback by using patient perception questionnaire; and surprisingly, there is only one study that use health education models and/or theories for designing college health education course. It seems that different studies have addressed a number of aspects of the issue, so for addressing all aspects of the issue, having a holistic approach to the issue is necessary, therefore, we recommend development of a comprehensive, systematic, evidence-based college health education course including combination of YouTube, simulation, smart mobile device, patient feedback as well as health education models/theories for providing health education and similar courses.
The authors would like to express their special thanks to Mr. Feleke Doyore Agide and Mr. Mohammad Ahmadpour for their valuable cooperation in the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was financially supported by Tehran University of Medical Science.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Sabbaghian H. Emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Iran J Epidemiol 2006;1:1-9.
Bartlett EE. Teaching health education in medical education: Selected perspectives. Prev Med 1984;13:100-14.
Forouzanfar MH, Sepanlou SG, Shahraz S, Dicker D, Naghavi P, Pourmalek F, et al.
Evaluating causes of death and morbidity in Iran, global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2010. Arch Iran Med 2014;17:304-20.
Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.
World Health Organization. Health Education: Theoretical Concepts, Effective Strategies and Core Competencies: A Foundation Document to Guide Capacity Development of Health Educators. Cairo: World Health Organization; 2012.
Timmereck TC. Some challenges in the management of community health education. Health Policy Educ 1982;3:223-8.
Borders S, Blakely C, Quiram B, McLeroy K. Considerations for increasing the competences and capacities of the public health workforce: Assessing the training needs of public health workers in Texas. Hum Resour Health 2006;4:18.
Shirjang A, Alizadeh M, Mortazavi F, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Jeddi A. Relevance of public health BSc curriculum to job requirements and health system expectations: Views of graduates on courses syllabi and content. Iran J Med Educ 2013;12:768-77.
Hojat M. Need assessment of nursing personnel of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences using Delphi technique in 2008. Iran J Med Educ 2011;10:1-10.
Barati M, Afsar A, Ahmadpanah M. Assessment of communication skills level among healthcare practitioners. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19:62-9.
Heshmati H, Rahaei Z, Hazavehei S, Dehnadi A, Hasanzadeh A. Related factors to educational behaviors of health volunteers about cutaneous leishmaniasis on the basis of BASNEF model in Yazd. J Health 2010;1:48-56.
Rostami H, Mirzaei A, Golchin M. Evaluation of communication skills of nurses from hospitalized patients' perspective. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2012;10:27-34.
Nair M, Webster P. Education for health professionals in the emerging market economies: A literature review. Med Educ 2010;44:856-63.
Shojaeezadeh D, Heshmati H. Integration of health education and promotion models for designing health education course for promotion of student's capabilities in related to health education. Iran J Public Health 2018;47:1432-3.
Steinert Y, Mann K, Centeno A, Dolmans D, Spencer J, Gelula M, et al.
A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education: BEME guide no 8. Med Teach 2006;28:497-526.
Steinert Y, Mann K, Anderson B, Barnett BM, Centeno A, Naismith L, et al.
A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to enhance teaching effectiveness: A 10-year update: BEME guide no 40. Med Teach 2016;38:769-86.
Wilkerson L, Irby DM. Strategies for improving teaching practices: A comprehensive approach to faculty development. Acad Med 1998;73:387-96.
Mello CD, Alves RO, Lemos SM. Methods of health education and training: Literature review. Rev CEFAC 2014;16:2015-28.
Hazavehei S, Asadi Z, Hasanzade A, Shekarchizadeh P. A study on the effect of physical education (Π) Curriculum Based on BASNEF Model on Female Students' Regular Physical Activity in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. ZUMS J 2009;17:70-83.
Ryu S, Ho SH, Han I. Knowledge sharing behavior of physicians in hospitals. Expert Syst Appl 2003;25:113-22.
David SP, Greer DS. Social marketing: Application to medical education. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:125-7.
Mann KV. Theoretical perspectives in medical education: Past experience and future possibilities. Med Educ 2011;45:60-8.
Abela JC. Adult learning theories and medical education: A review. Malta Med J 2009;21(1):11-8.
Perkins MB, Jensen PS, Jaccard J, Gollwitzer P, Oettingen G, Pappadopulos E, et al.
Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: What do we know? Psychiatr Serv 2007;58:342-8.
Solomon DH, Hashimoto H, Daltroy L, Liang MH. Techniques to improve physicians' use of diagnostic tests: A new conceptual framework. JAMA 1998;280:2020-7.
Kerstenetzky L, Birschbach MJ, Beach KF, Hager DR, Kennelty KA. Improving medication information transfer between hospitals, skilled-nursing facilities, and long-term-care pharmacies for hospital discharge transitions of care: A targeted needs assessment using the intervention mapping framework. Res Social Adm Pharm 2018;14:138-45.
DeBate R, Corvin JA, Wolfe-Quintero K, Petersen DJ. Application of the intervention mapping framework to develop an integrated twenty- first century core curriculum-part 1: Mobilizing the community to revise the masters of public health core competencies. Front Public Health 2017;5:287.
Corvin JA, DeBate R, Wolfe-Quintero K, Petersen DJ. Application of the intervention mapping framework to develop an integrated twenty- first century core curriculum-part two: Translation of MPH core competencies into an integrated theory-based core curriculum. Front Public Health 2017;5:286.
Corvin JA, DeBate R, Wolfe-Quintero K, Petersen DJ. Application of the intervention mapping framework to develop an integrated twenty- first century core curriculum-part three: Curriculum implementation and evaluation. Front Public Health 2017;5:285.
Weiland A, Blankenstein AH, Willems MH, Van Saase JL, Van der Molen HT, Van Dulmen AM, et al.
Post-graduate education for medical specialists focused on patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms; development of a communication skills training programme. Patient Educ Couns 2013;92:355-60.
Gumm R, Thomas E, Lloyd C, Hambly H, Tomlinson R, Logan S, et al.
Improving communication between staff and disabled children in hospital wards: Testing the feasibility of a training intervention developed through intervention mapping. BMJ Paediatr Open 2017;1:e000103.
van Rijssen HJ, Schellart AJ, Anema JR, de Boer WE, van der Beek AJ. Systematic development of a communication skills training course for physicians performing work disability assessments: From evidence to practice. BMC Med Educ 2011;11:28.
Burke SC, Snyder S, Rager RC. An assessment of faculty usage of YouTube as a teaching resource. Internet J Allied Health Sci Pract 2009;7:8.
Kai J, Spencer J, Woodward N. Wrestling with ethnic diversity: Toward empowering health educators. Med Educ 2001;35:262-71.
Taibi DM, Kardong-Edgren S. Health care educator training in simulation: A survey and web site development. Clin Simul Nurs 2014;10:e47-52.
Norcini J, Burdick W, Morahan P. The FAIMER institute: Creating international networks of medical educators. Med Teach 2005;27:214-8.
Schlundt DG, Quesenberry L, Pichert JW, Lorenz RA, Boswell EJ. Evaluation of a training program for improving adherence promotion skills. Patient Educ Couns 1994;24:165-73.
Wu TT. Using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice: A learning behavior analysis. Nurse Educ Today 2014;34:958-63.
Scheffer C, Tauschel D, Neumann M, Lutz G, Cysarz D, Heusser P, et al.
Integrative medical education: Educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the integrated curriculum for anthroposophic medicine (ICURAM). Patient Educ Couns 2012;89:447-54.
Burke SC, Snyder SL. YouTube: An innovative learning resource for college health education courses. Int Electron J Health Educ 2008;11:39-46.
Falvo D. Patient perception as a tool for evaluation and feedback in family practice resident training. J Fam Pract 1980;10:471-4.