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J Edu Health Promot 2014,  3:104

The relationship between sociability and productivity

1 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Health Human Resource Research Center, School of Management and Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2014

Correspondence Address:
Leila Mohammadinia
PhD Student Health in Disaster and Emergencies, MSc Health Service Management, School of Management and Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz
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Source of Support: Isfahan University of medical sciences.research center . school of management and information sciences.NO: 290109, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-9531.139696

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Introduction: When productivity is in the same way with culture and organized socialization, it is the gem of organization that can ensure stableness and survival of the organizations and be the mechanism for taking the competitive advantage. In contrast, the attention to socialization and the effect of that on productivity is less than its effect on public culture and organization culture. Hence this article evaluates the relationship between these variables in two groups of employees in selected hospitals in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive - correlation. The subject society who was studied was employees (nurses and staffs) of Kashany educational public hospital, Isabn Maryam public hospital, charitable Hojatie hospital and private Sadi hospitals in Isfahan province. For determination of socialization, the Biligard questionnaire and for productivity of employees the productivity questionnaire based on Goldesmit model were used that the justifiability and stability of them are confirmed by experts. The number of subject under study is calculated based on 250 persons-formula sampling. Results: There is a direct and significant correlation between socialization and productivity. On the other hand, the factors such age, sex, organizational position, history and the kind of employment, had no role excluding Sadi hospital. Conclusion: Although the productivity of the employees affects the accessibility of the hospital to its effective goals, the effective factors that play a role in increasing or decreasing the accessibility cannot be ignored.

Keywords: Hospital, hospital employees, organizational socialization, productivity

How to cite this article:
Karimi S, Mohammadinia L, Mofid M, Javadi M, Torabi R. The relationship between sociability and productivity. J Edu Health Promot 2014;3:104

How to cite this URL:
Karimi S, Mohammadinia L, Mofid M, Javadi M, Torabi R. The relationship between sociability and productivity. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 May 27];3:104. Available from: http://www.jehp.net/text.asp?2014/3/1/104/139696

  Introduction Top

Manpower is one the most important factors which plays a palatial role in improving organizational culture by taking part in the production process. [1] By Organizational culture, we mean: "the collection of values, beliefs and knowledge shared and agreed upon by a work group in performing actions which result in production or creating added value." [2] This culture creates the organizational boundaries first, inspires some sense of identity to the members of organization at the second level and provides people with a commitment to something which would be placed prior to their employees' interests at the third step. The culture is also referred to as some kind of paste that can link the organization together through providing appropriate standards. Finally, the mentioned culture as a control factor can create or shape employees' attitudes and ideas. [3] If a manager recognizes the culture of his/her organization, he/she can anticipate how the organization will respond to a specific situation or what kind of problems the organization will face with. This is how a manager also can affect the way employees feel, think, or act. [4] Organizational culture refers to organizational values receiving system identified by the members of that organization that distinguishes that organization form the others. In other words, organization's evaluation upon its features leads to forming an image of organizational culture. [5]

Promoting the work culture means working rightly, fulfilling the commitments even in absence of external control forces and holding responsibility against work process, production and employees and national resources. According to this definition, if the work culture in an organization or a society proves to be low, it means that the employees are nor eager to perform productive and fruitful tasks, their actions are less effective and the maximum possible output will not be gain from involving resources. [2]

According to the significance of human resources in fulfilling the goals of organizations, considering the performance of employees who are of upmost resources to the organization is highly notable. Hospitals as fundamental and important organizations in developing healthcare system need efficient manpower. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the goals of hospitals more quickly, their manpower should become completely familiar with the process of sociability which actually is the process of recognizing and adapting to the organizational culture. [6]

This process which begins with choosing the employees introduces the values, norms, policies and organizational procedures to new members. [7] Among the issues with organizations in our country, Iran, improving the sociability is notable. Significance of this issue is so high that the presence of trained and motivated labor force or, in other words, expert employees' sociability in different organizations is considered as one the important factors of development in developed countries. [8] It is because one of the fundamental points in choosing manpower at every organization and group is that after selecting, hiring and taking new employees and staff in, some plans and procedures should be designed to help them adapt themselves to the culture dominates the organization. One of the general actions done in this procedure is providing necessary trainings to make personnel sociable. Making somebody sociable or sociability refers to a process through which the individual gains necessary skills, knowledge and information about the organization he has entered in and by accepting dominant norms and value system in that organization, he/she becomes an effective and acceptable member of the organization and acts more efficiently and effectively.

In some views, justifying trainings for personnel and sociability are considered as same just in order to adapt new employees with the working environment, but people and jobs are changing, the employees are getting promoted, or they are transferred to other units or organizations. So, in every change and transfer, personnel are faced with the issue of adaptation to new jobs, working environments, or new tasks. [9] In general speaking, sociability means creating new attitudes, values and competencies which result in forming new employees ideas and behaviors that can help the individual plays his new roles. [10]

On the other hand, productivity and trying to increase it in organizations and institutes are of significant concepts the management unit and especially human resources management unit are dealing with nowadays. Productivity is an organizational magic that can guarantee the stability and survival of organizations and act as a mechanism for gaining the competitive advantage. What results in human resources productivity is that personnel and employees get adapted to organizational tasks and activities from the views of personality, interests and emotions. As a result of this, passion toward working, motivation and sense of responsibility will increase and consequently, organizational productivity will improve directly and indirectly. [1] Evaluating the productivity and improving it at every organization bears a significant importance for managers in different aspects such as performance increase and effectiveness in prioritizing and deciding; hence they have been included in this study.

Shaemi (2010) surveyed the relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment in Kurdistan Gas company; [10] Yang studied the effect of new employees' sociability on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and tendency toward leaving the job in international hotel industry in Taiwan; [11] and kowtha (2008) reviewed young engineers' sociability methods and adaptation to an organization with 135 new engineers, [12] but none of the studies, some of which was mentioned here, reviewed by the researcher has not evaluated the effectiveness of sociability on productivity. Since the issue of sociability has been less considered in comparison with concepts such as general culture, organizational culture, etc. [6] and due to its important role in moving toward proficiency and productivity of hospitals, the present study surveys the personnel's sociability and its effects on Isfahan's selected hospital personnel's productivity and performance.

  Materials and Methods Top

This is a field study and it belongs to the descriptive-analysis and coalition category. Sample society is the personnel of Isfahan's selected hospitals (public, private, charity, etc.) and the data has been studied and compared using two different questionnaires. Bigliardi questionnaire (2005) has been used for studying sociability. Nadi (2009) has used this 20-questions questionnaire for evaluating employees' sociability and work desires in working environments. [13] For evaluating employees' productivity, a 26-questions questionnaire based on the Goldsmith model (1998) [14] validity and stability of which have been identified by the experts' approval and calculated Cronbach's Alpha of 85% has been used. According to statistical calculations, the number of members in each selected hospital group is defined to be 30. Total number of samples for this research is 250 individuals.

For scoring the questionnaires, Likret scale which includes very low, low, medium, high, very high has been used. Numbers 1-5 respectively represent the mentioned scale. (Conventional) Minimum and maximum scores for sociability questionnaire are 19 and 95 and for productivity are 26 and 130 respectively. Data then has been entered in Spass program and in order to analyze the collected data, deceptive and inferential statistics (Pearson's correlation test and t-test for assuring the results of regression analysis) have been used.

  Findings Top

Nearly 38% of sample society is male and 62% is female. The age range of individuals is between 23 and 65 years old and the medium age has been proved to be 36 years old. Nursery and backup personnel have been divided into 5 categories according to their employment types (formal, employment over temporary contract [Gharardadi], employment for specific purposes [Peymani], Shebhe Peymani, Article 3) [Table 1].
Table 1: Researched personnel's frequency percentage distribution according to their employment status at selected hospitals

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Furthermore, [Table 2] has reviewed personnel's work experiences over a 5-years period.
Table 2: Research personnel's frequency percentage distribution according to their work history among selected hospitals

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It can be noted that the maximum correlation is seen at Sadi hospital and the minimum is witnessed at Kashani. According to the findings, there is a meaningful relationship between sociability and productivity (P < 0.05). Also, there is a meaningful relationship between the two factors at Sadi, Kashani, Eisab-ne-Maryam and Hojatieh hospitals (P < 0.05).[Table 3] So, it can be said that there is a strong relationship between sociability and productivity and with the correlation of 0.57 for Kashani hospital, 0.67 for Sadi hospital, 0.76 for Eisab-ne-Maryam hospital and 0.65 for Hojatieh hospital, it can be concluded that the relationship between our two factors is positive, the more organizational sociability increases, the more productivity does. According to the findings obtained from evaluations carried out, there is no meaningful relationship between the fundamental factors of productivity and sociability in the grounds of age, employment history, sex, employment type, organizational position at Kashani, Eisab-ne-Maryam and Hojatieh hospital; but at Sadi hospital there is a meaningful relationship between productivity and age (P = 0.01) and productivity and personnel's employment history (P = 0.009).
Table 3: The medium number of sociability and productivity among organizational positions at selected hospitals

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  Discussion Top

According to the significance of organizational sociability and its possible effects on manpower's productivity in an organization and due to this fact hat healthcare organizations have direct contacts with injured and sick people, the significance of manpower's productivity glows more and the issue of human resources management is considered as the foundation of all the methods, techniques and management models. [15] In 3 rd world countries, one-third of healthcare section costs is dedicated to human resources [16] and since it seems that organizational sociability has a direct effect on personnel's productivity, researchers claim it necessary to study such an effect.

According to references, there is no research done inside or outside the country which studies our two factors at the same time. In some papers, however, the relationship of sociability and productivity with other variables has been surveyed separately.

As the results of the study in some selected hospitals show, there is a high level of correlation between personnel's organizational sociability and productivity, especially nursery and backup personnel. This means that by increasing the sense of sociability among personnel, their commitment to the organization would increase, the level of job satisfaction would raise and finally their productivity lifts. Shaemi Barzaki in his study about the relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment in Kurdistan Gas Company noted this point that there is a meaningful positive relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment. [10] The studies of Exum is also a proof to the results of the present research. He did his research titled as "studying the relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment, job satisfaction and role change" among graduated students who were in their 1 st 5 years of work. In his research, he used Jones's sociability model in order to evaluate sociability. The results of Regression analysis showed that there is a meaningful relationship between some aspects of organizational sociability and organizational commitment and job satisfaction. [17] It is worthy of note that Yang also in their study "the effects of new personnel's sociability on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and tendency toward leaving the job in Hotel Industry" concluded that the organizational sociability increases the organizational commitment and job satisfaction and decreases the tendency toward leaving the job among hotel staff. [11]

Considering the subcategories of sociability factor such as norms, beliefs, trainings at the start time, understanding and which have a specific relationship revealed in this study with subcategories of productivity factors such as personnel's capacities, importance, motivation, and organization environment and is same as these below researches.

Kowtha in a research titled as "methods of sociability and young engineers' adaptation with organizations" shows that sociability methods affect the new work role, consistency of the work group and job dominance in a great range. This primary outputs also increase the satisfaction and organizational commitment. [12]

Beheshtifar et al. in a study titled as "surveying the organizational sociability and its relationship with personnel's performance" concluded that organizational sociability is one of the strategies used to develop the personnel's performance, especially new ones, in order to teach them norms, value and behavioral patterns. They also came to this conclusion that successful organizations take advantage of vital programs such as organizational sociability for new employees to guarantee their success and progress. They considered organizational sociability as a progressive and constant process which could improve the performance of all staff levels. [18]

Hesami (2010) in his study " Koran and Sociability" noted that since human being is a social creature, he obtains his social trainings from the environment and tries to make himself just same as the society through sociability process; however, this process is a mutual contact and actors are effecting and are effected mutually. [19]

Shahghale (2011) believes that survival and continuity of a society is bounded to transfer the beliefs, values, norms, attitudes, knowledge and skills to the next generations and claims that the ground of this transfer is the Educational system. He also considers education as one the subcategories of socialization equal to sociability in its broad definition and then defines the sociability as a process of learning roles, principles, relations and total culture of the society. [20]

Hoveyda et al. (2011) in a study titled as "the relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment among high schools of Hamadan" showed that there is a positive meaningful relationship between organizational sociability and organizational commitment. Regression analysis also showed that there is a positive meaningful relationship between general organizational sociability and emotional commitment. The results also added that the relationship between general organizational sociability and norm commitment is positive and domains of duty and policy have a meaningful relationship with norm commitment. [21]

  Conclusion Top

Due to this fact that manpower is the most important organizational resources and its performance can affect organizational efficiencies, factors affecting its performance should be taken seriously into account. Sociability and organizational culture are notable factors significance of which in personnel's productivity is highly clear. As this paper showed, sociability has a direct effect on productivity, the more the personnel become organizationally sociable; the more productivity would be seen in their organizational performance. Among the hospitals selected for this study, the results obtained in Sadi hospital nicely proof this claim, so it is worthy of note that managers and planers may make new employees familiar with organizational values (sociability) in order to motivate their organizational commitments for moving toward organization goals and purposes.

  References Top

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4.Christensen, Clayton M., and Kristin Shu. "What Is an Organization′s Culture?" Harvard Business School Background Note 399-104, February 1999. (Revised August 2006.) Available at: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=14290.[Access on 2014 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Revathi G. Organizationn culture at Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan state project set-up, Tamil Nadu. ???Loyal college, Chennai600034, Loyola Institute of Business Administration; 2008. p. 5.Available at: http://www.ssa.tn.nic.in/docu/organisation_culture.pdf.[Access on 2014 Feb 07].  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Jafari M, Habib M. Culture of work. Tadbir J 2003;125:70-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
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10.Brzky AS. Relationship between organizational socialization and organizational commitment in Kurdistan gas company. Change Manage J 2010;3:11.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Yang J. Effect of newcomer socialisation on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in the hotel industry. Serv Ind J 2008;28:429-43.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Kowtha NR. Engineering the engineers: Socialization tactics and new engineer adjustment in organizations. Acad J 2008;55:67-81.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Nadi MA, Golparvar M, Lordship, A. Organizational socialization and job expectations in the workplace. Appl Sociol 2009;37:176-59.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Smith L, McCall J, Stoll L. The school management scale. Manage Educ 1998;12:27. Available from: http://www.mie.sagepub.com/content/12/2/27.abstract.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Akbabi F, Tofighi SH, Torabi A, Arab M, Tarahi MJ. Relationship between managers′ leadership style and conflict management in hospitals Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. J Lorestan Univ Med Sci 2005;2:51-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Asefzadeh S. Educational and health services, scientific and cultural participation. Tehran: Scientific and cultural company publisher Tehran, 1 st ed; 1997. p. 238.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Exum ME. An examination of the relationship between organizational socialization and the organizational commitment, job satifaction, and role orientation of new student affairs professionals. Dissertation for the Degree Doctor of PhilosophyPublisherOhio University, June, 1998Available at: http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Examinination_i_e_Examination_of_the.html?id=o5_NtgAACAAJ.[Access on 2014 Feb 7].  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Beheshtifar M, Rashidi M, Nekoie-Moghadam M. Study of organizational socialization and its relationship on employees′ performance. Afr J Bus Manag 2011;5:10540-4. [2011 Oct 28]. Available from: http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Hesami F. Quran and socialization. Marefat (scientific-extension|) Journal 2010;146:37-56. Available from: http://www.noormags.com/view/fa/creator/4780.[Persion].  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Shahghale S. Education, development and socialization. J Soc Sci Educ 2011;2:45-38.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Hoveyda R, Jamshidian A, Mokhtarifar H. Correlation between organizational socialization and organizational commitment among secondary school teachers in Hamadan. Applied Sociology, twenty-second year, 2011:63-82. [Persian].  Back to cited text no. 21


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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